Metales, dientes y TEA

Los niños pequeños con autismo tienen más plomo y menos zinc y menos manganeso que los niños de la misma edad sin autismo.

El estudio ha sido publicado en la revista Nature Communications y ha sido realizado por un equipo del National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.

Los investigadores usaron gemelos monozigóticos y dizigóticos para controlar la influencia de la genética y se centraron en posibles aspectos ambientales relacionados con este trastorno.

Los resultados sugieren que una diferencia en la exposición temprana a metales o quizá aún más importante, en cómo los procesa el niño, pueden incrementar el riesgo de desarrollar autismo.

Las diferencias en la incorporación de metales entre los niños con y sin autismo eran especialmente notables en los meses justo antes y justo después del nacimiento. ¿Y cómo lo supieron?

Los investigadores usaron un registro con unas posibilidades excelentes para conocer el ambiente prenatal y postnatal temprano: los dientes de leche.

Los dientes crecen por el depósito de nuevas capas de dentina desde antes de nacer y los investigadores usaron láseres para cartografiar los anillos de crecimiento generados durante diferentes momentos del desarrollo en dientes de leche que se les habían caído. 

Sería igual que si estudiamos el contenido de los anillos de crecimiento del tronco de un árbol y podemos obtener información de cómo era el ambiente en cada uno de esos años.

Los investigadores analizaron 6 parejas de gemelos (5 monozigóticas y 1 dizigótica) concordantes (los dos niños tenían TEA), 7 parejas de gemelos (3 monozigóticas y 4 dizigóticas) discordantes (un niño tenía TEA y el hermano, no) y 19 parejas de gemelos sin TEA (9 monozigóticos y 10 dizigóticos). 

De esta manera, compararon los patrones de depósito de metales en niños donde solo uno de los dos tenía autismo, en otros donde lo tenían los dos y en otros donde no lo tenía ninguno. En total estudiaron 32 parejas de gemelos y 12 individuos sueltos de parejas de gemelos pero donde no estaba disponible el diente del otro hermano. También analizaron la relación entre niveles de metales y gravedad del trastorno. 

Las diferencias en la incorporación de metales eran más pequeñas si los dos hermanos gemelos tenían autismo y mayores si solo uno de ellos lo tenía.

Los investigadores indicaron que es necesario replicar el estudio en una muestra más grande para confirmar esta relación entre metales y autismo.

Las mayores diferencias entre el grupo con autismo y los controles en la cantidad de plomo se encontraron justo después del nacimiento.

También observaron menor incorporación de manganeso en los niños con autismo tanto antes como después del parto.

El patrón era más complejo en el caso del zinc: los niños con autismo tenían menos zinc durante el desarrollo fetal, pero sus niveles se elevaban después de nacer, superando los niveles de su gemelo sin TEA en la etapa postnatal.

Un análisis exploratorio de otros metales encontró otras diferencias entre los gemelos con TEA y su hermano sin TEA. Los niveles de estaño eran mayores en los niños con TEA y esta diferencia era significativa estadísticamente entre 20 y 16 semanas antes del nacimiento.

El estroncio era mayor en todo el período estudiado y la diferencia era especialmente prominente en las semanas 22-30 después del nacimiento.

El cromo era menor en los niños con TEA que en sus gemelos control sin TEA y esta diferencia era máxima entre las 20 y las 15 semanas prenatales.

En total se encontraron diferencias pre y postnatales en seis de los diez metales analizados.

Había datos previos de que la exposición a metales tóxicos como el plomo así como la deficiencia en nutrientes esenciales como el manganeso, podía afectar negativamente al desarrollo cerebral tanto en etapas prenatales como postnatales.

Aunque el manganeso es un nutriente esencial, a altas dosis es también tóxico. La exposición a plomo y a niveles excesivos de manganeso se ha asociado a rasgos autismo y a la gravedad del trastorno.

El grupo estaba dirigido por Manish Arora, investigador medioambiental y dentista, de la facultad de Medicina en Monte Sinaí (Nueva York).

Los investigadores usaban láseres para extraer capas precisas de dentina, la sustancia dura que hay por debajo del esmalte dentario.

El equipo había demostrado en un estudio anterior, que la cantidad de plomo en las diferentes capas de dentina correspondía en la exposición a este metal durante distintos períodos del desarrollo.

Los trastornos del espectro autismo tienen un claro componente genético y un claro, pero menos definido todavía, componente ambiental.

Hay distintas circunstancias en el desarrollo embrionario y postnatal de un niño que incrementan el riesgo de desarrollar un TEA, pero identificar cuáles son, en qué período influyen y cómo es su conexión con los cambios estructurales y funcionales presentes en un cerebro con TEA está siendo realmente difícil.

El ambiente no para de cambiar y los efectos de una exposición a algún agente no sólo dependen de la cantidad, sino también de a qué edad fue esa exposición.

Los estudios en animales muestran que los efectos de diversos metales sobre el desarrollo cerebral pueden deberse a una desregulación de la neurotransmisión y a alteraciones en las estructurales frontales y subcorticales, varias de las cuáles han sido implicadas en las TEA.

Por tanto, las exposiciones ambiental y alimentaria a metales son posibles factores etiológicos (causantes) en los TEA.

Hasta ahora la mayoría de los estudios se hacían con muestras de sangre en niños que ya habían sido diagnosticados.

La nueva técnica permite medir los niveles mucho antes de que fueran diagnosticados e incluso en el desarrollo intrauterino.

Este método también permitirá medir la exposición a metales en otros trastornos como el déficit de atención con hiperactividad.

fuente: https://jralonso.es/2018/06/15/metales-dientes-y-tea/

Esta entrada fue publicada en autismo. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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