Hipersensibilidad sensorial en el TEA. ¿Por qué se tapan los oídos las niñas y niños con TEA?

Frecuentemente podemos encontrarnos con niños o niñas con TEA que se tapan los oídos en ciertas ocasiones, por ejemplo cuando alguien se dirige a ellos o cuando hay determinados ruidos (sobre todo el generado por muchas personas, música alta…) Estos comportamientos están muy lejos de ser malintencionados

Los niños y las niñas que realizan esto se caracterizan por la llamada hipersensibilidad sensorial, y esto ¿qué quiere decir?

Que tiene una experiencia sensorial diferente, la hipersensibilidad estaría relacionada con la sobre recepción de estímulos y puede ser auditiva, visual, táctil, olfativa, . Es decir que son extremedamente sensibles a diversos factores, en este caso a los sonidos (volumen, timbre, frecuencia…)

Otras dificultades que puede presentar quien tiene este trastorno provocadas por esta especial  sensibilidad serían aturdirse con los ruidos fuertes o tener dificultades para concentrarse cuando los hay, confundirse con determinados tipos de iluminación, sentirse mal con olores fuertes, sean buenos olores o malos olores, o sentir una sensación desagradable cuando les tocan sin que esperen ser tocados.

El malestar que les genera esta sensibilidad puede llegar a provocar crisis de ansiedad o comportamientos de respuesta como evitación o escape. (la situación sería similar a si a ti te ponen unos cascos a todo volumen con un ruido que no soportas)

Por la otra parte tenemos la Hiposensibilidad sensorial que se refiere a cuando tienen una baja recepción de estímulos por ese canal sensorial.

Y en este el comportamiento es diferente, si fuera por ejemplo auditiva, lo que suelen hacer es proporcionarse estimulación auditiva porque parece que no procesan el estímulo auditivo de manera que sea suficiente para su cerebro y necesitan más,

Consejos útiles:

  • Háblales a un volumen adecuado, la comprensión de la comunicación no va a mejorar por subir el volumen de la voz.
  • Si la situación es muy intensa sensorialmente no aumentes esta experiencia con lenguaje oral, utiliza pictogramas o lenguaje gestual.
  • El exceso de lenguaje oral no le va ayudar a comprender mejor el mensaje que le quieres transmitir en caso de que tengan la capacidad de comprenderlo por esta vía. Utiliza mensajes cortos y claros, dale un tiempo para que procese la información, y lo mejor es repetirla y dividirla en dos partes : Ejemplo : Ponte los zapatos que nos vamos a la calle. Ponte los zapatos. Nos vamos a la calle.

fuente: pictoaplicaciones.com


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