‘Yo pienso diferente’

un alegato contra la normalidad desde los ojos de un genio con autismo

  • Josef Schovanec, que tiene autismo, es un genio de las matemáticas y doctor en filosofía que narra la historia de su vida en Yo pienso diferente.
  • Este autor francés, diagnosticado con síndrome de Asperger, fue incapaz de hablar hasta la edad de seis años aunque ahora domina diez lenguas.
  • La busqueda de la normalidad, a ojos del autor, conlleva cierta pérdida de las cualidades humanas.
  • «Ser normal es bien triste. Prefiero la compañía de los locos», sentencia

‘Yo pienso diferente’, un alegato contra la normalidad desde los ojos de un genio con autism

  • Josef Schovanec, que tiene autismo, es un genio de las matemáticas y doctor en filosofía que narra la historia de su vida en Yo pienso diferente.
  • Este autor francés, diagnosticado con síndrome de Asperger, fue incapaz de hablar hasta la edad de seis años aunque ahora domina diez lenguas.
  • La busqueda de la normalidad, a ojos del autor, conlleva cierta pérdida de las cualidades humanas.
  • «Ser normal es bien triste. Prefiero la compañía de los locos», sentencia
Portada de 'Yo pienso diferente' de Josef Schovanec
Portada de ‘Yo pienso diferente’ de Josef Schovanec

“Bienaventurados los que están rotos, porque ellos dejarán pasar la luz”. Josef Schovanec es un genio de las matemáticas, doctor en filosofía, escritor, dominador de una decena de idiomas, contertulio televisivo, ponente en congresos internacionales… y una persona con autismo. En concreto, con síndrome de Asperger. Esta última característica -aunque él no rehúsa de ella- quizás sea la que menos define su individualidad, ya que, según sostiene, «el ser humano es muy complejo y, pase lo que pase, siempre es más que su maleta».

Su historia, narrada con un estilo muy cercano y con un amplio anecdotario que expone avatares tortuosos a través del humor en Yo pienso diferente (Palabra, 2015), es la de un niño francés de ascendencia checa al que los trastornos asociados al síndrome de asperger (que está dentro del amplio espectro autista) le impidieron pronunciar una sola palabra hasta los seis años. La capacidad de comunicarse con el resto llegaría un tiempo después que la dicción. En un primer término, sólo sus padres -y no siempre- eran capaces de entender qué era lo que su hijo intentaba decirles.

Sin embargo, por aquella época Josef Schovanec ya leía con soltura y comentaba por escrito cartas medievales en latín. En las pocas ocasiones en las que hablaba, su boca espetaba sonidos como “Anitak, Alnilam, Mintaka”. Sus interlocutores, según recuerda el autor, le miraban atónitos questionándose si sufría algún tipo de psicosis infantil. En cambio, él se pregunta con ironía si no sería la incapacidad de su entorno para reconocer que esos tres nombres corresponden a tres estrellas del cinturón de orión lo que imposibilitaba la comunicación.

Bromas aparte, Schovanec reconoce que los primeros años de su vida fueron especialmente duros. La falta de comprensión de los códigos sociales y el pánico ante las situaciones inesperadas eran capaces de convertir eventos habituales de la vida cotidiana en muros que solo con el paso del tiempo y la ayuda de sus padres acabaría siendo capaz de sortear. Su dificultad para hacer amigos, sus particularidades motrices, su pasión obsesiva con las bibliotecas y los “pequeños monstruos abusones” de sus compañeros hicieron del recreo un verdadero suplicio para Schovanec.

El autor asegura que aprendió mucho más de cómo ejercitar los códigos sociales en el mercado con su madre que en el colegio. Sin embargo, éste se empeñó en continuar su escolarización. Poco a poco se acabaría convirtiendo en un alumno modelo, lo que le hizo darse cuenta de que “era posible triunfar a pesar de todo” y le convenció de iniciar una carrera académica con los resultados anteriormente expuestos.

Palpando los barrotes

Una de las definiciones más antiguas y recurrentes del autismo emplea el símil de la cárcel interior. Josef Schovanec no se considera un experto sobre autismo, por ello recalca que el libro muestra su experiencia y su forma de ver las cosas. Sobre el asunto de la cárcel interior del autista Schovanec prefiere preguntar “¿Cuál es la prisión humana en general?”.

El autor asegura conocer a personas que “pasan por perfectamente normales”, individuos supuestamente libres, cuya vida que se limita a alternar la vida laboral con el consumo televisivo un día tras otro sin apenas comunicarse con su entorno.

Schovanec reconoce que cuando está solo en su habitación no se siente autista y que es al salir a la calle cuando se enfrenta con los problemas y dificultades. Sin embargo, no cree que su universo interior sea muy diferente al de otras personas. “Dispongo de libertad de reflexión, de acción y de pensamiento que no está, en su base, más restringido que el pensamiento interior de cualquier otra persona”.

«Para los que me conocen por primera vez, soy un idiota. Pero cuando menciono el autismo, entonces, inmediatamente, algunos invierten su posición. De idiota me convierto en genio. Esto, en última instancia, viene a ser psicológicamente lo mismo, si exceptuamos la habilidad para extraer la raíz cuadrada de trece», sentencia Schovanec.

La anomalía de la normalidad

El genio francés asegura que «cuando la ley de la selva prima sobre la del guante blanco», un autista es concebido como poco menos que un bobo, un imbécil, un tarado, -o peor- un enfermo.

Schovanec insta a que esa palabra no sea utilizada para referirse al autismo ya que «descansa sobre un postulado problemático«. A saber, una enfermedad es una fuente de sufrimiento extraña a la persona y debe ser eliminada para recuperar la plenitud perdida.

Esto lleva al autor a plantearse las siguientes preguntas: ¿Llegar a ser normal es un deseo éticamente admisible? ¿Podemos transformarnos a voluntad? ¿Es algo humano o un indicio de locura? ¿Quién puede juzgar de modo absoluto sobre lo que es apetecible, alegre o hermoso? ¿Quién lo pasa mal cuando un no autista está rodeado de autistas?

La busqueda de la normalidad, a ojos del autor, conlleva cierta pérdida de humanidad. Schovanec define al ser humano como «un equilibrio frágil de parámetros complejos» sobre el que no existe bricolaje a voluntad sin el riesgo de correr la misma suerte que Gregor Samsa en La Metamorfosis de Franz Kafka.

«Nada asegura a los padres que, cambiando a su hijo a través de algún tipo de maniobra genética, el niño no tenga que enfrentarse ya siendo adulto a situaciones de exclusión ligadas a variables que nunca hubiesen podido anticipar», apunta.

Debido a su negativa a referirse al autismo como una enfermedad, el autor propone otros dos términos. El primero es discapacidad, al que encuentra dos ventajas: le permite desenvolverse con personas de perfiles relativamente cercanos como ciegos o sordos y es la única manera indirecta que tiene la Administración de reconocer el autismo. Sin embargo, opina que no ofrece una clave de lectura perfectamente adaptada.

Por ello aboga por el uso del término locura ya que, según mantiene, las especificaciones técnicas y las clasificaciones en ocasiones hacen que la gente se olvide del camino y de soñar con mejores orillas. «En fin, ser normal es bien triste. Prefiero la compañía de los locos».

fuente: https://www.20minutos.es/noticia/2498003/0/yo-pienso-diferente/alegato-contra-normalidad/josef-schovanec-genio-autismo/?autoref=true

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