Ciencia Cognitiva, Teoría de la Mente y autismo

  • Autores: Isabel Gómez Echeverry
  • Localización: Pensamiento psicológico, ISSN 1657-8961, Vol. 8, Nº. 15, 2010, págs. 113-124
  • Idioma: español
  • Resumen
    • Español:
    • Este artículo toma como referencia los aportes de la Psicología Cognitiva en el estudio del autismo. En primera instancia se realiza una descripción de los conceptos de representaciones mentales (Johnson-Laird 1983, 1987, 1990, Norman, 1983) y la metáfora del cerebro como computador (Tulving, 1937, 1950).
    • Posteriormente, se ahonda en el concepto de teoría de la mente tomando como referencia los estudios iniciales de Premack y Woodruff (1978), Rivière (1987, 1991a, 1991b).
    • Se describe la relación entre teoría de la mente y autismo, partiendo de los estudios de Karner (1943). Wing (1981). Desde la teoría-teoría, existen varias teorías psicológicas que tratan de explicar el fenómeno del autismo: la de la Ceguera Mental (Barón-Cohen, Leslie y Frith, 1985), la del Debilitamiento de la Coherencia Central Frith (2003), y la de la Disfunción Ejecutiva (Russel, 2000 y Ozonoff, 2000).
    • Otra de las teorías es la Hobson (1995), quien plantea que los déficits cognitivos y sociales en el autismo son de naturaleza afectiva. Finalmente, es importante destacar que las habilidades deficientes en el autismo son destrezas muy complejas, que dependen no sólo de procesos de planificación y ejecución y de inferencias mentalistas, sino de una coordinación de muchas funciones que actúan simultáneamente.
    • English
    • This article takes as its reference the contributions of cognitive psychology to the study of autism. In the first instance a description of the concepts of mental representation (Johnson-Laird 1983, 1987, 1990, Norman, 1983) and the metaphor of the brain as a computer (Tulving, 1937, 1950), was carried out.
    • Subsequently, an in-depth study was made of the theory of the mind concept, with reference to the initial studies made by Premack and Woodruff (1978), Riviere (1987, 1991a, 1991b).
    • Finally a description between the theory of the mind and autism based on the studies of Karner (1943), and Wing (1981) is presented. From the theory-theory, there are several psychological theories which try to explain the phenomenon of autism: the theory of mind blindness (Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith, 1985), that of the weakening of central coherence, Frith (2003), and the executive dysfunction theory (Russel, 2000 y Ozonoff, 2000).
    • Another of Hobson�s theories (1995) proposes that the cognitive and social deficits in autism are of an affective nature. Finally, it is important to highlight that the deficient abilities in autism are very complex skills which depend not only on processes of planning and execution of mentalistic inferences, but of a coordination of many functions which act simultaneously.

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