Prevalencia de ansiedad y TOC en pacientes con TEA

La prevalencia de ansiedad y TOC en niños y adolescentes con TEA es variable según el estudio considerado, y puede alcanzar el 84% y 37.2%, respectivamente.

Además, los trastornos de ansiedad en pacientes con TEA tendrían una frecuencia mayor al doble en comparación con lo observado en niños sanos.

Los trastornos de ansiedad más frecuentes en estos casos incluyen la fobia específica, la fobia social y la agorafobia.

De todos modos, los datos disponibles son heterogéneos y dependen de la población evaluada y de los criterios diagnósticos aplicados.  

Los síntomas de ansiedad observados en pacientes con TEA son heterogéneos.

Las presentaciones clínicas pueden ser clásicas o no convencionales. La variabilidad clínica y la coincidencia e interacción sintomática entre la ansiedad y el autismo generan un desafío diagnóstico.

Los síntomas de ansiedad pueden presentarse de diferentes formas y confundirse con los síntomas de TEA. De hecho, no queda claro si la ansiedad es una manifestación asociada con los mismos factores etiológicos que el TEA.

Es posible que el TEA y la ansiedad tengan una etiología en común.

Esto incluye anormalidades cerebrales estructurales en regiones como la corteza prefrontal, el hipocampo, la amígdala y la ínsula.

No obstante, no queda clara la asociación entre dichas anormalidades y la presentación clínica observada en pacientes con ansiedad en comorbilidad con el TEA.

La ansiedad podría surgir como consecuencia de los trastornos de comunicación social asociados con el TEA.

También es posible que la hipersensibilidad a los estímulos sensoriales observada en pacientes con TEA genere ansiedad ante situaciones habituales.

De todos modos, no todos los pacientes con TEA presentan ansiedad.

Ciertas características como la discapacidad intelectual, la depresión, los tics o los rasgos obsesivo-compulsivos observados en pacientes con TEA aumenten el riesgo de ansiedad.

De todos modos, la ansiedad se observa en un subgrupo de pacientes con TEA con características particulares.

Las experiencias adversas también aumentan el riesgo de ansiedad en pacientes con TEA.

Puede indicarse que la aparición de ansiedad en pacientes con TEA se vincula con una interacción entre diferentes factores de riesgo.


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