14 pautas para estimular el juego en niños con autismo

    Una de las características del autismo es su limitada interacción social.

Si el niño con autismo al principio no interactúa en el juego, no sabe cómo empezar o cómo participar, nosotros los adultos debemos estimular esta acción, y enseñarle a que lo haga pues necesita orientación a modo de guía para aprender a jugar.

Empezaremos siguiendo estas pautas:

  1. Sigue los  intereses del niño, incorpóralos en el juego, e imita los movimientos o “juegos” de él. De esta forma intentaremos captar su atención. Demuéstrale que su conducta nos interesa.
  2. Hazle saber que estamos con él, para que acepte la intromisión del adulto en sus juegos y actividades.
  3. Trata de crear juegos circulares, dándole  motivos para comunicarse. Pueden ser juegos sensoriomotores y de contacto corporal, siempre que sean atractivos y motivantes para él, con la finalidad de hacer emerger el juego circular y a partir de aquí ir ampliando hacia otros tipos de juego.
  4. Modela y ve dotando de sentido su juego a partir de pequeñas pautas estructuradas.
  5. Prepara guiones sencillos de juego, paso a paso, enséñale a jugar con juguetes, enséñale a imitar y a practicar su uso, a la vez también le vamos mostrando las posibilidades de juego. Ya que se aprende haciendo (moldeado) y se asimila repitiendo (rutinas).
  6. Establece una rutina: que se consigue con confianza y seguridad, porque sabrá qué va a pasar.
  7. Anticipa lo que va a ocurrir: por ejemplo, “ahora pompas de jabón” se pueden utilizar apoyos visuales para la mejor comprensión.
  8. Provoca el uso del lenguaje ayudándole a hacer peticiones sencillas. Por ejemplo, si le gustan las pompas comenzamos a jugar con él y pararemos. De esta forma creamos una situación de petición. Una vez nos demande más pompas podemos jugar dándole órdenes del tipo; “ahora sopla tú” o “intenta coger las pompas”.
  9. Habla sin alzar la voz y con calma, con palabras sencillas y concisas, con movimientos lentos y suaves, con sonrisas y tocándole a menudo. Ponte siempre a su nivel para hablar y busca el contacto visual.
  10. Presenta el juego de forma muy atractiva, divertida y motivadora. Disfruta junto a él, para que se convierta en una experiencia positiva. No impongas una actividad si no genera interés.
  11. Dedícale horas y horas jugando de forma estructurada primero, para después ir flexibilizando.
  12. No utilices las bromas o los mensajes confusos, porque no te van a entender.
  13. Delimita el espacio cuando interactúes en el suelo. Elimina los ruidos de fondo y las distracciones.
  14. Utiliza la coherencia: toda la familia lo ha de hacer igual.

Con estas pautas vamos estableciendo las bases de la interacción con el niño y después nos será más sencillo  lograr que nos imite a nosotros. A partir de ahí, iremos avanzando hacia otros tipos de juego, donde les enseñaremos a controlar los turnos, mediante juegos de intercambio, etc.

La finalidad es jugar con ellos para que después ellos jueguen y disfruten jugando con otros niños.

Pilar Espinosa, psicóloga de Red Cenit Valencia

Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, DIVULGACIÓN. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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