PARACETAMOL . AUTISMO

Tomar paracetamol en el embarazo aumenta el riesgo de que el bebé sufra autismo y TDAH

Un estudio del ISGlobal constata la relación entre la exposición a ese fármaco en el vientre materno y la aparición de trastornos autistas y de déficit de atención en la infancia

El paracetamol es uno de los pocos fármacos que no están contraindicados durante el embarazo.

Se calcula que entre el 46% y el 56% de las embarazadas de los países desarrollados recurre en algún momento de la gestación a este fármaco, considerado el analgésico más seguro en ese periodo y en la infancia.

Sin embargo, en los últimos años algunos estudios han empezado a relacionar la exposición prenatal al medicamento con un peor rendimiento cognitivo, problemas de comportamiento, Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA) o por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH).

Ahora, un estudio epidemiológico liderado por el Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona (ISGlobal), centro impulsado por la Fundación La Caixa, respalda estos resultados al hallar una relación directa entre la ingesta de acetaminofén –paracetamol– durante los meses de embarazo y la aparición antes o después del nacimiento de trastornos por déficit de atención e hiperactividad y del espectro autista en los bebés.

En el estudio, publicado en la revista ‘European Journal of Epidemiology’, se ha analizado a 73.881 niños de diferentes países europeos de los que se disponía de datos sobre la exposición prenatal o posnatal que tuvieron al citado fármaco.

Dependiendo de la cohorte, entre el 14% y el 56% de las madres de estos menores informaron de que habían tomado paracetamol en su etapa de gestantes.

Los resultados son concluyentes y revelan que los menores que habían estado expuestos al paracetamol antes de nacer tienen un 19 por ciento más de posibilidades de desarrollar posteriormente síntomas de trastornos del espectro autista y un 21 por ciento más de probabilidades de sufrir trastornos por déficit de atención que los no expuestos.

Resultados precisos

«Nuestros datos son consistentes y reafirman lo que indicaban trabajos previos. Asimismo, vemos que la exposición prenatal al paracetamol afecta de forma similar a niños y niñas, ya que prácticamente no observamos diferencias», explica Sílvia Alemany, investigadora de ISGlobal y primera autora del estudio.

La «robustez» de los resultados responde, según la experta, al hecho de que «a diferencia de investigaciones anteriores, este estudio, que analiza seis cohortes diferentes, se ha hecho armonizando todos los parámetros para que los resultados sean lo más precisos posibles».

«Los estudios anteriores han sido criticados por su heterogeneidad, de manera que en esta ocasión se ha hecho un esfuerzo por armonizar el modo en que se ha evaluado o definido los síntomas de TDAH y TEA, así como qué significa estar expuesto al paracetamol», explica Alemany.

«La muestra es amplia», prosigue, «y analiza de forma conjunta cohortes de diferentes países europeos (Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Países Bajos, Italia, Grecia y España).

En todas las cohortes estudiadas el criterio ha sido el mismo, de modo que hemos reducido la heterogeneidad de criterios de la que adolecían estudios previos».

Solo cuando sea necesario

En declaraciones a ABC, la investigadora aclara que «la intención del estudio no es en ningún caso alarmar. Tampoco queremos dar el mensaje de que tomar paracetamol no es seguro durante el embarazo, simplemente que tomarlo en exceso (no se ha determinado a partir de qué ingesta aumenta el riesgo) no es bueno porque aumenta la probabilidad de que los futuros bebés sufran estos trastornos».

Jordi Sunyer, investigador de ISGlobal y último autor del estudio, destaca la importancia del trabajo.

«Nuestros resultados abordan parte de las debilidades de los metaanálisis previos. Teniendo en cuenta todas las evidencias sobre el uso del paracetamol y el desarrollo neurológico, estamos de acuerdo con las recomendaciones que indican que, si bien el paracetamol no debe suprimirse en mujeres embarazadas ni en la infancia, sí debe usarse solo cuando sea necesario».

El estudio también analizó la exposición infantil posnatal al medicamento, sin que en este caso se observara asociación entre el paracetamol tomado en la infancia y los síntomas de TEA. Pese a ello, el equipo científico recomienda seguir investigando, dada la heterogeneidad de la exposición en las diversas cohortes estudiadas, que osciló entre el 6% y el 92,8%.

FUENTE: ABC.SALUD

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