NEURONAS ESPEJO

La imitación es muy importante para el aprendizaje. En las etapas iniciales de la comunicación, cuando aún no hay lenguaje, los niños aprenden a comprender el mundo observando las conductas de los adultos y sus reacciones.

Antes que el lenguaje necesitan adquirir la habilidad de la atención compartida. No basta con mirar e imitar,  es necesario comprender la intencionalidad del otro para que el aprendizaje tenga no solo efecto, sino también sentido.

El sistema de las neuronas en espejo está formado por un grupo de neuronas del lóbulo frontal que se activa al observar a los otros y actúa conjuntamente con el sistema límbico.

Así es posible la imitación a través de la comprensión de la intencionalidad y las emociones en las acciones de los demás.

El sistema de las neuronas en espejo desempeña muy probablemente un papel crucial en el neurodesarrollo pues facilita la comprensión de los mecanismos mentales del otro –teoría de la mente– y la adquisición del lenguaje.

En los niños con autismo parece que este sistema no se activa ni durante la observación ni la imitación de expresiones emocionales.

Pero los estudios realizados son pocos y con pocos individuos, lo que lleva a cuestionarse la validez de esta teoría, como bien explica ciencia bruja en este post.

Fuente Neuronas en Crecimiento de María José Mas

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