CELULAS MADRE Y AUTISMO

INVESTIGACION DE LAS CELULAS MADRE EN EL AUTISMO

Las células madre podrían ser la clave para tratar a los niños que padecen algún tipo de trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), según explicó a Efe Johana Ojeda, presidenta de la Asociación Bancos de Células Madre de México.

«Algunas investigaciones han demostrado que hay células en la sangre del cordón umbilical que expresan proteínas que simulan a las neuronas, las cuales ayudan a que se formen nuevas conexiones entre ellas», aseveró Ojeda.

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), define a los trastornos del espectro autista como un grupo de afecciones caracterizadas por algún grado de alteración del comportamiento social, la comunicación y el lenguaje, y por un repertorio de intereses y actividades restringido, estereotipado y repetitivo.

El autismo no es considerado una enfermedad, sino una condición que afecta al 1 % de la población mundial. La Secretaría de Salud estima que en México hay casi 95.000 niños entre cero y cuatro años con TEA. Esta es una condición neurológica que afecta el comportamiento, interacción y aprendizaje de quien la tiene.

«Lo que se sabe hasta hoy es que pueden existir patrones en ciertos genes que se repiten en los pacientes con autismo. También se han observado fallos en la regulación del sistema inmunológico, inflamación cerebral o diferencias en la estructura del cerebro de los pacientes», dijo Ojeda.

La complejidad de afectaciones que causa esta condición ha complicado que exista un tratamiento estándar para la misma; sin embargo, investigadores estadounidenses han encontrado esperanza para tratar el autismo, el cual no tiene cura.

«Desde hace tiempo se ha observado que las células madre, bajo ciertas condiciones, pueden liberar proteínas, conocidas como factores neurotróficos, que estimulan ciertos efectos en las neuronas y el sistema nervioso central», explicó la especialista.

No obstante, señaló, esto no quiere decir que la células se conviertan en neuronas, sino que «envían señales para que las neuronas se activen y maduren o formen nuevas conexiones, lo que potencialmente pudiera ayudar al desarrollo del cerebro del niño», aseveró.

El estudio más reciente al respecto es el realizado por científicos estadounidenses del Centro Duke para el Estudio del Autismo y el Cerebro, quienes administraron células madre a 25 niños de entre 2 y 5 años diagnosticados con TEA, y tras ello fueron evaluados con exámenes relacionados con el comportamiento. Las células utilizadas para este estudio eran de la sangre del cordón umbilical de los niños con TEA que los padres habían decidido almacenar preventivamente. «Lo que se hizo es que a través de vía intravenosa, estas células se pasan como si fuera un suero y a través de las señales que mandan las neuronas pueden generar una conexión entre ellas», dijo la experta, que cuenta con una maestría en Tecnología en Células Madre de la Universidad de Nottingham, Reino Unido.

Explicó que este tratamiento experimental busca inducir la maduración, proliferación y formación de nuevas conexiones de las neuronas que permitan que el cerebro del niño tenga una mejor oportunidad de desarrollarse, lo cual invariablemente dependerá de sus síntomas y la gravedad del trastorno.

Esto significa una esperanza porque hoy en día el tratamiento «es prácticamente rehabilitación, terapias, pero eso no logra generar tanta mejoría como se tiene en los ensayos clínicos».

Este, dijo, es solo un ejemplo de la investigación que se realiza con células madre provenientes del cordón umbilical que buscan encontrar mejores opciones de tratamiento. Del mismo modo recalcó que esta terapia aún se encuentra en fase de investigación con el fin de generar tratamientos seguros, eficaces, reproducibles y sin efectos adversos a largo plazo.

Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, INVESTIGACION. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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