QUE ES ARC

El ARC está situado dentro de la Facultad de Medicina Clínica en el Departamento de Psiquiatría, en la Universidad de Cambridge.

Reúne a científicos que trabajan en autismo de toda la Universidad de Cambridge. También tiene importantes colaboraciones con otras universidades y trabaja en estrecha colaboración con los servicios del sector clínico y voluntario.

El ARC cuenta con aproximadamente 30 investigadores científicos y personal de apoyo, provenientes de una variedad de disciplinas (neurociencia cognitiva, psiquiatría, pediatría, neonatología, genética, bioinformática, endocrinología, proteómica y bioquímica).

INVESTIGACIÓN

 Programas de investigacion El Centro de Investigación del Autismo (ARC)

Percepción Percepción y Cognición El ARC fue pionero en la investigación psicológica sobre las condiciones del espectro autista, desarrollando métodos experimentales para estudiar las dificultades en la empatía, las fortalezas en la sistematización y la atención al detalle.

Ahora también estamos estudiando problemas sensoriales en el autismo. Los métodos utilizados en este programa incluyen pruebas computarizadas, seguimiento de la mirada, respuesta galvánica de la piel (GSR), codificación observacional, experimentos cognitivos, cuestionarios y psicofísica.

Diagnóstico

El ARC fue el primero en desarrollar métodos de detección temprana para detectar el autismo a los 18 meses de edad, y probarlos a nivel de población, y ha desarrollado instrumentos relacionados para la detección del autismo y el síndrome de Asperger en la infancia, la adolescencia y la edad adulta.

Estos instrumentos también ayudan en el fenotipado, de modo que las diferencias biológicas subyacentes pueden vincularse a sus posibles funciones.

Intervención

El ARC desarrolló un nuevo software educativo para enseñar el reconocimiento de emociones (Mindreading DVD) y una animación infantil para enseñar esta habilidad a niños en edad preescolar en el espectro del autismo (DVD de los transportadores). Ambos han sido cuidadosamente evaluados para medir sus beneficios. También estamos evaluando otras intervenciones que promueven la empatía al aprovechar las fortalezas en la sistematización, como la Terapia Lego.

Hormonas

El ARC lidera un estudio longitudinal único sobre el papel de la testosterona fetal (FT) en el desarrollo infantil al estudiar a los hijos de madres que tuvieron amniocentesis durante el embarazo y al estudiar si FT juega un papel en el desarrollo del autismo.

También estamos observando las hormonas esteroides sexuales en muestras de sangre o saliva en personas en el espectro del autismo.

Las hormonas peptídicas como la oxitocina también se están investigando.

Genética Genética y Proteómica

El autismo y el síndrome de Asperger son fuertemente heredables. El ARC realiza estudios de genes candidatos, escaneos genómicos y secuenciación completa del genoma.

Encontramos una asociación entre la fuerte sistematización y el número de rasgos autistas, por lo que estamos probando la genética tanto de la habilidad matemática como del autismo. Probamos variantes raras y comunes a través de estudios familiares o colaboraciones con grandes recursos genéticos.

Neurociencia

Las condiciones del espectro autista implican un desarrollo y funcionamiento cerebral atípico. Estudiamos esto usando MRI (tanto estructural como funcional), ERP, DTI y neuropatología.

También tenemos un programa de investigación que utiliza células madre pluripotentes inducidas (iPSC) en el que las neuronas se derivan de personas con autismo, para recapitular el crecimiento de neuronas ‘en un plato’.

Esto nos permite modelar el desarrollo del cerebro en el autismo prenatalmente.

Sinestesia

La sinestesia ocurre cuando un estímulo en una modalidad sensorial desencadena una percepción automática en otra modalidad (por ejemplo, el color que activa el sonido). Publicamos las primeras pruebas de autenticidad de la sinestesia, escáneres cerebrales de la sinestesia y genética molecular de la sinestesia.

Recientemente encontramos que la sinestesia es más común en el autismo. Ahora estamos explorando la superposición genética entre sinestesia y autismo.

Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, INVESTIGACION. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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