Los niños con autismo tienen demasiadas neuronas en la amígdala y las pierden a medida que maduran

El número de neuronas en la amígdala, área del cerebro implicada en la conducta social y emocional, se incrementa por lo general del nacimiento a la edad adulta, pero eso no parece ocurrir en las personas con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA).

En lugar de ello, los niños con TEA tienen demasiadas neuronas en esa área y las pierden a medida que maduran.

Los investigadores examinaron el cerebro de 52 personas que habían fallecido, 28 de las cuales tenían un TEA. Sus edades oscilaban entre 2 y 48 años.

Encontraron que la cantidad de neuronas en una parte de la amígdala aumentó en más de un 30% de la niñez a la edad adulta en los individuos que se habían desarrollado de forma normal. Sin embargo, en las personas con TEA, el número de neuronas era más elevado de lo normal en los niños pequeños y se reducía con la edad.

Según los autores, es posible que tener demasiadas neuronas a una edad temprana pueda contribuir a la ansiedad y a los problemas en las interacciones sociales, y con el tiempo, esa actividad constante podría desgastar el sistema y conducir a la pérdida de neuronas.

Estudios anteriores han vinculado la disfunción de la amígdala con trastornos como el TEA, la esquizofrenia, el trastorno bipolar y la depresión.

FUENTE: Neurologí

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