La jerga del autismo, ¿qué significan sus sonidos?

Muchos niños con Trastorno del Espectro Autista utilizan una jerga durante sus juegos que sustituye al habla. Antes de darse el habla, los bebés balbucean como modo de “entrenamiento” vocal.

Estos juegos vocales se irán desvaneciendo para dar paso al habla con significado, con palabras y frases con sentido, pero, ¿por qué un niño de 4 años sigue utilizándola?

Los bebés empiezan a balbucear en repetidas ocasiones, (bababa, dadada, etc.) durante sus propios juegos vocales.

Es una manera de jugar y “practicar el habla”, como un entrenamiento para lo que vendrá a ser el habla propiamente dicha, pero estos balbuceos carecen de sentido, es decir, no contienen palabras con significado.

Los niños juegan a abrir y cerrar sus bocas, mover sus lenguas de un lado a otro… normalmente acompañados de movimientos corporales, golpeando y sacudiendo los objetos mientras balbucean en cadencia.

Estas actividades de juego vocal son importantes para el desarrollo del lenguaje.

Algunos niños con autismo suelen producir largas cadenas de sonidos sin sentido e ininteligibles. A esto se le llama “jerga”, la jerga del autismo: una jerga a veces, muy elaborada.

Podemos decir que el niño está tratando de expresar algo, ya que la jerga del autismo normalmente se produce con un patrón de entonación similar al del adulto: lo está imitando.

Por desgracia, resulta muy complicado saber interpretarla ya que carece de contenido semántico.

Es como un “lenguaje escondido”. Esta jerga se produce de manera repetitiva y como un comportamiento auto-estimulatorio. En ocasiones, intercala alguna palabra o frases con sentido, pero fuera de contexto. Los niños pueden pasarse hablando en su “idioma” pero sin dirigirse al otro.

¿Por qué lo hacen? Porque están intentando expresar algo. Normalmente el niño está intentando decir una frase que él no puede construir, por lo que “rellenan” la oración con palabras sin sentido (los adultos hacemos lo mismo cuando cantamos una canción, pero olvidamos la letra y nos “inventamos” las palabras).


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