Las personas con Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo pueden tener dificultades para la comunicación e interacción social.
Para muchas de ellas, el lenguaje no es siempre la mejor forma de comunicarse. Las palabras son abstractas, efímeras y pueden tener muchas interpretaciones.
Aunque las personas con TEA son muy variables en cuanto a su nivel lingüístico, todas ellas presentan dificultades de comunicación, que pueden manifestarse de muchas maneras:
En cuanto a la comprensión:
- Pueden tener problemas para comprender mensajes que se transmiten de forma oral
- Aunque entiendan las palabras de forma aislada, pueden tener dificultades para integrarlas dentro de la frase o el contexto y extraer el significado completo.
- Pueden tener dificultades para comprender el significado no literal del lenguaje oral, mostrando problemas de comprensión de bromas, chistes, metáforas o sarcasmos.
- Pueden tener dificultades para entender la comunicación no verbal (gestos, indicaciones, expresiones emocionales).
En cuanto a la expresión:
- Pueden tener problemas para expresarse oralmente
- Aunque su expresión sea correcta, pueden utilizar un lenguaje excesivamente formal, no ajustado a la situación o con una entonación que resulta inusual.
- Pueden hablar mucho tiempo de sus temas de interés y tener dificultad para saber cuándo terminar. Le cuesta elegir temas de los que “hablar por hablar”.
¿Cómo puedes comunicarte con una persona con TEA?
- Reflexiona sobre el desafío que puede resultar para ella y ponte en su lugar.
- Habla con un estilo claro, evitando ambigüedades.
- Evita el sarcasmo, la ironía o los dobles sentidos o asegúrate de explicarlos bien para que no haya malentendidos.
- Haz explícitos algunos conceptos que para la mayor parte de las personas son obvios, especialmente los relativos a las relaciones sociales, pero no para las personas con TEA.
- Da tiempo a la otra persona para que pueda procesar la información que le has trasmitido. Respeta sus tiempos.
- Ante comportamientos que no te resulten usuales, comprende que no son caprichosos o intencionados. Quizás necesites explicar o reformular tu mensaje porque pueden deberse a un problema de comprensión.
- Ten en cuenta que utilizar otro tipo de códigos, como las imágenes, puede ayudar a su comunicación.
- Si tienes dudas, pregunta cómo puedes ayudar.
- Interésate por la persona.
Buenísimo el articulo. Reciba un cordial saludo.
Las personas con Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo pueden tener dificultades para la comunicacion e interaccion social. Para muchas de ellas, el lenguaje no es siempre la mejor forma de comunicarse. Las palabras son abstractas, efimeras y pueden tener muchas interpretaciones. Aunque entiendan las palabras de forma aislada, pueden tener dificultades para integrarlas dentro de la frase o el contexto y extraer el significado completo.
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