El lenguaje no es siempre la mejor forma de comunicarse para las personas con TEA

Las personas con Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo pueden tener dificultades para la comunicación e interacción social.

Para muchas de ellas, el lenguaje no es siempre la mejor forma de comunicarse. Las palabras son abstractas, efímeras y pueden tener muchas interpretaciones.

Aunque las personas con TEA son muy variables en cuanto a su nivel lingüístico, todas ellas presentan dificultades de comunicación, que pueden manifestarse de muchas maneras:

En cuanto a la comprensión:

  • Pueden tener problemas para comprender mensajes que se transmiten de forma oral
  • Aunque entiendan las palabras de forma aislada, pueden tener dificultades para integrarlas dentro de la frase o el contexto y extraer el significado completo.
  • Pueden tener dificultades para comprender el significado no literal del lenguaje oral, mostrando problemas de comprensión de bromas, chistes, metáforas o sarcasmos.
  • Pueden tener dificultades para entender la comunicación no verbal (gestos, indicaciones, expresiones emocionales).

En cuanto a la expresión:

  • Pueden tener problemas para expresarse oralmente
  • Aunque su expresión sea correcta, pueden utilizar un lenguaje excesivamente formal, no ajustado a la situación o con una entonación que resulta inusual.
  • Pueden hablar mucho tiempo de sus temas de interés y tener dificultad para saber cuándo terminar. Le cuesta elegir temas de los que “hablar por hablar”.

¿Cómo puedes comunicarte con una persona con TEA?

  • Reflexiona sobre el desafío que puede resultar para ella y ponte en su lugar.
  • Habla con un estilo claro, evitando ambigüedades.
  • Evita el sarcasmo, la ironía o los dobles sentidos o asegúrate de explicarlos bien para que no haya malentendidos.
  • Haz explícitos algunos conceptos que para la mayor parte de las personas son obvios, especialmente los relativos a las relaciones sociales, pero no para las personas con TEA. 
  • Da tiempo a la otra persona para que pueda procesar la información que le has trasmitido. Respeta sus tiempos.
  • Ante comportamientos que no te resulten usuales, comprende que no son caprichosos o intencionados. Quizás necesites explicar o reformular tu mensaje porque pueden deberse a un problema de comprensión.
  • Ten en cuenta que utilizar otro tipo de códigos, como las imágenes, puede ayudar a su comunicación.
  • Si tienes dudas, pregunta cómo puedes ayudar.
  • Interésate por la persona.

fuente: www.autismo.org

Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, INVESTIGACION. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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