Las necesidades especiales del alumno con TEA
El TEA (Trastorno del Espectro Autista) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo que empieza a manifestarse alrededor de los dos primeros años del niño y se extiende durante el resto de su ciclo vital. Las áreas más afectadas son las capacidades de interacción social y comunicativa y la regulación flexible de sus pensamientos y conductas.
Un alumno con TEA no buscará relacionarse con sus iguales; y, si lo hace, su manera de interactuar puede ser inapropiada. Ambas situaciones podrían conllevar al aislamiento y el acoso en el aula de dicho alumno.
Otras características del niño autista, que interfieren en la inclusión dentro del aula, es la presentación de patrones de pensamiento y movimientos repetitivos (balanceo, cerrar y abrir puertas…), una hiperreactividad ante ciertos estímulos, la dificultad para la comprensión del lenguaje simbólico o para empatizar.
No obstante, los síntomas del TEA son muy heterogéneos. No todos los alumnos que sufren autismo manifiestan las mismas alteraciones cognitivo y conductuales, ni en el mismo grado. Por lo tanto, es fundamental que el equipo docente y especializado adapte el programa de intervención atendiendo las necesidades específicas y personales del alumno y potencie aquellos rasgos que beneficiarán su inclusión en la escuela.
Para optimizar el proceso de aprendizaje de un niño autista, el profesional educativo necesita aprender cómo aprende dicho cerebro.
Para optimizar el proceso de aprendizaje de un niño autista las habilidades requeridas en autonomía e integración social, el profesional educativo necesita, a su vez, aprender a evaluar al alumno, valorar su situación en el aula, respetar su ritmo y estilo de aprendizaje y diseñar y poner en práctica adaptaciones curriculares específicas y eficaces para cada uno de ellos.
El programa de estudio del Máster Oficial Educación Especial responde a esta necesidad de los profesionales de la Educación de conocer todos los tipos de NEE, y de ser capaz de detectar e intervenir sobre las diversas necesidades de aprendizaje de sus alumnos con discapacidad.
Cómo potenciar el aprendizaje en niños autistas: actividades en el aula
Para abordar correctamente el autismo en el aula y lograr una buena inclusión del alumno con TEA en las dinámicas de clase, es necesario que el docente respete, valore y comprenda las necesidades de dicho alumnado; que se implique en el trabajo del equipo experto y se muestre flexible en su labor pedagógica, con el único fin de cubrir todas las necesidades del alumno.
Entre las actividades y estrategias que se pueden realizar a favor de la buena adaptación del alumno autista, caben destacar:
- La estructuración del entorno para que sea predecible por parte del alumno y se sienta seguro emocionalmente. La creación de rutinas, así como el diseño de una agenda con pictogramas, fotos o dibujos ayudarán al niño autista a anticiparse y comprender la secuencia de las acciones que requiere una tarea; también, a la identificación de las emociones propias y de los iguales.
- El uso de apoyos visuales para facilitar las enseñanzas (programa TEACCH) y la incorporación de programas de comunicación y competencia social como el Programa de Comunicación Total, donde se asocian signos a vocalizaciones.
- Siguiendo la metodología anterior, son de vital importancia los apoyos visuales (historietas, cómics y vídeos) para mejorar la comprensión por parte del alumno de las situaciones sociales e impulsar la imitación de conductas adecuadas.
- En las fichas de trabajo del alumno también se debe incluir la secuencia de tareas, paso a paso, con claridad y dibujos de apoyo.
- Por último, se aconseja crear un “círculo de amigos” del entorno al alumno con TEA: un grupo de compañeros que interactúen y le guíen en los entornos más abiertos (el patio, el comedor escolar o durante los cambios de clase).
No hay que olvidar que la presencia del niño autista también contribuye al enriquecimiento social, personal y emocional del resto de los integrantes de la comunidad.
Sin duda, el autismo dentro del aula ordinaria supone un reto para el profesor; pero no hay que olvidar que la presencia del niño autista también contribuye al enriquecimiento social, personal y emocional del resto de los integrantes de la comunidad educativa. Saber cómo tratar este trastorno e incorporar actividades que permitan la inclusión educativa y social del alumno autista requieren de formación y competencias específicas para responder de forma eficaz a las demandas que plantean los alumnos con una necesidad educativa especial..
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