EL AUTISMO AFECTA A TODO EL CEREBRO

No se limita a áreas relacionadas con la interacción social

El autismo afecta al funcionamiento de prácticamente todo el cerebro y no se limita a las áreas relacionadas con la interacción social, los comportamientos de comunicación y las habilidades de razonamiento. Así lo indica un reciente estudio realizado por científicos de los Institutos Estadounidenses de Salud (NIH).

El trabajo, publicado por la revista ‘Child Neuropsychology’, señala que el autismo afecta a una extensa gama de habilidades y capacidades, incluidas la percepción sensorial, el movimiento y la memoria.

Además, sugiere que esta patología es un desorden en el que varias partes del cerebro encuentran dificultades para trabajar juntas en el desarrollo de tareas complejas.

Las personas con autismo tienden a mostrar tres características en su comportamiento, que sirven de base para el diagnóstico de la patología:

  1. dificultad para la interacción social
  2. problemas de comunicación verbal y no verbal
  3. y comportamientos repetitivos e intereses obsesivos

Sin embargo, durante los últimos 20 años, los investigadores comenzaron a analizar otros aspectos del pensamiento y el cerebro en los autistas. Detectaron que tienen dificultad en muchas otras áreas, como el equilibrio, el movimiento, la memoria y las habilidades de percepción visual.

En el presente estudio, Minshew y sus colegas realizaron una extensa colección de pruebas neuropsicológicas a un grupo de 56 niños con autismo, comparando sus respuestas con otros 56 niños no autistas.

Todos los menores que participaron en esta investigación tenían entre ocho y 15 años, podían hablar, leer y escribir.

Dificultad para las tareas complejas

Los científicos descubrieron, mediante estas pruebas, que los niños con autismo las realizaron tan bien -y en algunos casos incluso mejor- que otros pequeños con una media básica de funcionamiento cerebral, aunque, generalmente, tenían problemas con las tareas complejas.

Por ejemplo, en las habilidad espacial, los niños con autismo eran muy buenos encontrando pequeños objetos en un revoltijo visual campestre o buscando a Wally en los libros de este personaje. Sin embargo, cuando se les pidió realizar tareas complejas, como hallar las diferencias entre dos caras o entre personas parecidas, tuvieron grandes dificultades.

A pesar de que su memoria para los detalles de una historia es fenomenal, los niños autistas tenían gran dificultad para comprender la historia, explica Minshew. Señala que no se puede compartimentalizar el autismo bajo tres áreas básicas, sino que es «mucho más complejo que eso».

Fuente: elmundo.es

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