Doble excepcionalidad: Altas Capacidades y Asperger

Doble excepcionalidad: Altas Capacidades y Asperger

autismo actividades extraescolares
altas capacidades actividades extraescolares

La doble excepcionalidad hace referencia a los casos en los que niños y niñas presentan dos o más necesidades educativas especiales, siendo una de ellas las altas capacidades, dificultando su identificación e intervención. 

La psicopedagoga Mónica Fernández hace referencia a que entre un 14 y un 20% de los/las niños/as con altas capacidades también presentan déficit de atención por hiperactividad, dificultades del aprendizaje o trastornos del espectro autista (Picart, 2019). En estos casos una buena diagnosis resulta mucho más importante para llevar a cabo una buena intervención y una adaptación curricular acomodada para evitar el fracaso escolar, aunque hace falta destacar que se trata de una diagnosis mucho más compleja de llevar a cabo.

En este post vamos a hablar en concreto de la doble excepcionalidad de altas capacidades y el trastorno del espectro autista, Asperger. Y qué mejor manera de comenzar que hablando de aquellos factores que caracterizan a cada uno de estos perfiles.

asperger actividades extraescolares

Síndrome de Asperger

Comenzando por el Síndrome de Asperger, el DSM (manual de criterios diagnósticos para el ámbito de la salud mental) clasifica los siguientes criterios para llevar a cabo una diagnosis del mismo:

  • Deficiencias cualitativas en la interacción social (por lo menos dos de las siguientes):
    • Uso deficiente de comportamientos no verbales para regular la interacción social: mirada a los ojos, expresión facial, posturas corporales y gestos para regular la interacción social.
    • Incapacidad para desarrollar relaciones con iguales adecuadas al nivel evolutivo.
    • Ausencia de conductas espontáneas encaminadas a compartir placeres, intereses o logros con otras personas.
    • Falta de reciprocidad social o emocional. 
  • Patrones de conducta, interés o actividad restrictivos, repetidos y  estereotipados (por lo menos una de las siguientes):
    • Preocupación excesiva por un foco de interés (o varios) restringido y  estereotipado, excesivo por su intensidad o contenido.
    • Adhesión aparentemente inflexible a rutinas o rituales específicos y no funcionales.
    • Estereotipias motoras repetitivas: sacudir las manos, retorcer los dedos, movimientos complejos de todo el cuerpo, etc.
    • Preocupación persistente por partes de objetos.

Altas Capacidades

Continuando con las Altas Capacidades, la comunidad científica considera que son aquellos niños y niñas que presentan las siguientes características:

  • Elevado cociente intelectual.
  • Alta creatividad.
  • Capacidad de aprendizaje muy superior al promedio.
  • Motivación en la tarea.

Doble excepcionalidad

Pero, ¿qué tienen en común el  Síndrome de Asperger y las Altas Capacidades? Pues en ambos casos son niños/as con una gran memoria, fluidez verbal, tienen hipersensibilidad sensorial y son monotemáticos/as con todo lo que les fascina.

Además, los niños/as con esta doble excepcionalidad pueden presentar:

  • Escasa flexibilidad.
  • Dificultad para desarrollarse en situaciones poco estructuradas, aunque sea para diversión.
  • Habilidades superiores al promedio.
  • Rasgos psicológicos como timidez, mostrarse retraídos/as, falta de obediencia y/o hiperactividad/hipoactividad.
  • Su comportamiento en el aula es bueno, pero en casa “explota emocionalmente”.

Claves para aplicar en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje

Algunos trucos que nos pueden ser de utilidad para llevar a cabo con niños/as que tienen este tipo de diagnosis serían los siguientes:

  • Utilizar estilos de aprendizaje visuales, auditivos y kinestésicos (aprender haciendo). Mucho mejor si llevamos a cabo combinaciones entre ellos para estimular diferentes partes del cerebro.
  • Relacionar los contenidos con sus experiencias, buscar siempre ejemplos que los lleven a aprender a través de asociaciones.

Pero no nos podemos dejar llevar por datos, listas de características, claves… tenemos que pensar en cada niño/a como un ser único, especial y diferente y adaptarnos a sus necesidades concretas, independientemente de si tiene una u otra diagnosis o ninguna. La verdadera clave está en, como profesor/a, padre o madre, preguntar, hablar, conocer y cómo no, en acompañar y nunca etiquetar


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