Condiciones asociadas al autismo

Son muchas las condiciones asociadas al autismo, que podrían presentarse en esta población, afectando otros aspectos en el desarrollo de los mismos.

El término medico para referirse a las condiciones asociadas al autismo, es el de comorbilidad, y entre 10 y 15 % de las personas con autismo también presentan síndromes genéticos o enfermedades causadas por mutaciones en los cromosomas.

Por ese motivo y otros, hay diversas condiciones asociadas al autismo, entre las cuales tenemos:

1 – Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad:

Una condición neurobiológica que aparece en la infancia, caracterizándose por impulsividad, hiperactividad y déficit en la atención.

Esta es una de las condiciones asociadas al autismo más comunes, que también puede conocerse como inatención.

Esta condición puede manifestarse en comportamientos que interfieren significativamente en el rendimiento del niño, tanto en la escuela, como en el hogar y a nivel social en general.

Si se presenta esta condición junto con el autismo, el individuo debe recibir medicación especial y terapias conductuales.

2 – Ansiedad:

Es una de las condiciones asociadas al autismo más comunes, ocasionada por el mismo trastorno de desarrollo, debido a la dificultad de interactuar con su entorno y dependiendo del nivel cognitivo y la edad.

Además se habla de un trastorno de ansiedad social, originado por la misma condición y siendo una de las condiciones específicamente derivadas del autismo.

3 – Trastorno bipolar:

Es un trastorno que afecta el ánimo bruscamente y entre sus síntomas también se encuentra la ansiedad.

4 – Discapacidad intelectual:

Esta condición asociada al autismo, depende también del grado del espectro autista que presente el individuo (leve, moderado o profundo), por lo que pueden presentar discapacidad intelectual también en distintos grados. Además, se estima que entre el 40 y 69% de los autistas, tienen un grado de discapacidad intelectual.

También muchos casos de personas con autismo, han presentado dificultades de aprendizaje, dependiendo de sus capacidades y necesidades especificas.

5 – Trastorno obsesivo compulsivo:

También conocido como TOC, es una de las condiciones asociadas al autismo, sobre todo en casos de autismo severo, caracterizándose por pensamientos, comportamientos compulsivos y recurrentes. Aproximadamente un 30% de las personas con autismo tienen esta condición.

6 – Dispraxia:

Otra de las condiciones asociadas al autismo que se presenta en muchos casos, reflejándose en atrasos en la adquisición de las habilidades motoras, como montar en bicicleta, abrir recipientes, torpeza.

También, se puede notar una escasa coordinación óculo manual, por lo que la escritura se ve afectada, al igual que el aprendizaje de conceptos y las habilidades visuales.

Las personas con autismo, que presentan dispraxia, pueden manifestar problemas en la percepción de sí mismo, en el equilibrio, la posición de sus dedos, entre otros.

7 – Enfermedades gastrointestinales:

Se dice que esta es una de las condiciones asociadas al autismo, ya que muchos de los niños con esta condición presentan enterocolitis e inflamación en el tracto gastrointestinal, además se presentan en algunos casos problemas de estreñimiento o encopresis.


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