A continuación ofrecemos algunos ejemplos de las diferencias que se presentan en el ámbito social y del comportamiento de los nivos con autismo.
Tenga en cuenta: Un niño con el TEA no siempre tendrá los mismos síntomas de otro niño con el TEA. ¡La cantidad y la severidad de los síntomas puede variar mucho!
Diferencias sociales de los niños con autismo:
- No mantiene contacto visual o establece muy poco contacto visual.
- No responde a la sonrisa ni a otras expresiones faciales de los padres.
- No mira los objetos ni los eventos que están mirando o señalando los padres.
- No señala objetos ni eventos para lograr que los padres los miren.
- No lleva objetos de interés personal para mostrárselos a los padres.
- No suele tener expresiones faciales adecuadas.
- Es incapaz de percibir lo que otros podrían estar pensando o sintiendo al observar sus expresiones faciales.
- No demuestra preocupación (empatía) por los demás.
- Es incapaz de hacer amigos o no le interesa hacerlo.
Diferencias de comunicación en los niños con autismo:
- No señala cosas para indicar sus necesidades ni comparte cosas con los demás.
- No dice palabras sueltas a los 16 meses.
- Repite exactamente lo que otros dicen sin comprender el significado (generalmente llamado repetición mecánica o ecolalia).
- No responde cuando lo llaman por su nombre pero sí responde a otros sonidos (como la bocina de un automóvil o el maullido de un gato).
- Se refiere a sí mismo como “tú” y a otros como “yo”, y puede mezclar los pronombres.
- Con frecuencia no parece querer comunicarse.
- No comienza ni puede continuar una conversación.
- No usa juguetes ni otros objetos para representar a la gente o la vida real en los juegos simulados.
- Puede tener buena memoria, especialmente para los números, las letras, las canciones, las canciones publicitarias de la televisión o un tema específico.
- Puede perder el lenguaje u otros logros sociales, generalmente entre los 15 y 24 meses (que con frecuencia se denomina regresión).
Diferencias de comportamiento (conductas repetitivas y obsesivas) en un niño con autismo
- Se mece, da vueltas, se balancea, se tuerce los dedos, camina en la punta de los dedos de los pies durante largo tiempo, aletea las manos (comportamiento llamado “estereotípico”)
- Prefiere las rutinas, el orden y los ritos; tiene dificultadas con los cambios o la transición de una actividad a otra.
- Se obsesiona con algunas actividades inusuales, que hace de forma repetitiva durante el día.
- Juega con partes de los juguetes en lugar del juguete entero (por ejemplo, le da vuelta a las llantas de un camión de juguete).
- Parece no sentir dolor.
- Puede ser muy sensible o no tener sensibilidad alguna a los olores, sonidos (ruidos), luces, texturas y al tacto (contacto).
- Mira o contempla de forma inusual, mira a los objetos desde ángulos poco comunes.
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