Cómo identificar los signos del autismo

A continuación ofrecemos algunos ejemplos de las diferencias que se presentan en el ámbito social y del comportamiento de los nivos con autismo.

Tenga en cuenta: Un niño con el TEA no siempre tendrá los mismos síntomas de otro niño con el TEA. ¡La cantidad y la severidad de los síntomas puede variar mucho!

Diferencias sociales de los niños con autismo: 

  • No mantiene contacto visual o establece muy poco contacto visual.
  • No responde a la sonrisa ni a otras expresiones faciales de los padres.
  • No mira los objetos ni los eventos que están mirando o señalando los padres.
  • No señala objetos ni eventos para lograr que los padres los miren.
  • No lleva objetos de interés personal para mostrárselos a los padres.
  • No suele tener expresiones faciales adecuadas.
  • Es incapaz de percibir lo que otros podrían estar pensando o sintiendo al observar sus expresiones faciales.
  • No demuestra preocupación (empatía) por los demás.
  • Es incapaz de hacer amigos o no le interesa hacerlo.

Diferencias de comunicación en los niños con autismo:

  • No señala cosas para indicar sus necesidades ni comparte cosas con los demás.
  • No dice palabras sueltas a los 16 meses.
  • Repite exactamente lo que otros dicen sin comprender el significado (generalmente llamado repetición mecánica o ecolalia).
  • No responde cuando lo llaman por su nombre pero sí responde a otros sonidos (como la bocina de un automóvil o el maullido de un gato).
  • Se refiere a sí mismo como «tú» y a otros como «yo», y puede mezclar los pronombres.
  • Con frecuencia no parece querer comunicarse.
  • No comienza ni puede continuar una conversación.
  • No usa juguetes ni otros objetos para representar a la gente o la vida real en los juegos simulados.
  • Puede tener buena memoria, especialmente para los números, las letras, las canciones, las canciones publicitarias de la televisión o un tema específico.
  • Puede perder el lenguaje u otros logros sociales, generalmente entre los 15 y 24 meses (que con frecuencia se denomina regresión).

Diferencias de comportamiento (conductas repetitivas y obsesivas) en un niño con autismo

  • Se mece, da vueltas, se balancea, se tuerce los dedos, camina en la punta de los dedos de los pies durante largo tiempo, aletea las manos (comportamiento llamado «estereotípico»)
  • Prefiere las rutinas, el orden y los ritos; tiene dificultadas con los cambios o la transición de una actividad a otra.
  • Se obsesiona con algunas actividades inusuales, que hace de forma repetitiva durante el día.
  • Juega con partes de los juguetes en lugar del juguete entero (por ejemplo, le da vuelta a las llantas de un camión de juguete).
  • Parece no sentir dolor.
  • Puede ser muy sensible o no tener sensibilidad alguna a los olores, sonidos (ruidos), luces, texturas y al tacto (contacto).
  • Mira o contempla de forma inusual, mira a los objetos desde ángulos poco comunes.
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