Cómo caminar de la mano por la calle con niños
Algunos padres lo pasan realmente mal cuando su hijo por el motivo que sea empieza a soltarse de la mano en la calle y sale corriendo en cualquier dirección. El caso se agrava cuando el niño no tiene conciencia del peligro y además su nivel de comprensión es bajo, (niños con autismo por ejemplo), y se expone a múltiples accidentes como atropello, pérdida o rapto.
Como siempre digo, a cada niño, en función de sus capacidades y forma de ser le funcionará una estrategia. A continuación, comparto dos estrategias que me han funcionado muy bien. Una para niños con autismo con cierto nivel de comprensión aunque sea solo a nivel visual y otra para niños con bajo nivel de comprensión.
En la mayoría de casos, la ayuda visual es crucial para niños con TEA (Trastorno del Espectro Autista), ya que muchas veces el salir corriendo responde a un impulso de “búsqueda de sensaciones” muy difícil de evitar para el niño. La ayuda visual le permite de una forma casi instantánea comprender la norma y las consecuencias.
Empezaremos en trayectos muy cortos, (de casa al coche, del cole al coche, etc.), para que comprenda cómo funciona el método. Le prepararemos el siguiente material:
Vamos a la página de Arasaac y buscamos aquellos pictogramas que se ajusten más a nuestras rutinas. En este caso he escogido coche, casa, cole, comprar, y Red Cenit. Haremos dos tiras. Una con los lugares de un tamaño de 3 cm x 3cm, y en otra pondremos dos cuadrados para indicar inicio y fin del trayecto, el pictograma “mamá” en el que sale un niño cogido de su mano y una flecha con un premio en caso de conseguirlo. El premio pueden ser pequeñas cosas que le gusten al niño como pegatinas, caras sonrientes o incluso un abrazo o un beso. Con los casos más complicados de autismo se puede utilizar alguna pequeña golosina o alimento que le guste, aunque siempre es mejor que la recompensa no sea comida.
Para los niños con autismo que tengan mayor nivel de comprensión, podemos emplear una economía de fichas para retardar la recompensa, es decir, por cada trayecto de la mano ganará un punto, y cuando consiga un número de puntos, ganará un premio. El número de puntos y el premio deben estar pactados desde el principio e incluso sobre el papel. En este caso con cinco trayectos de la mano irán al Zoo.
Prevención y modificación de la conducta
Los casos más complicados son aquellos en los que el nivel de comprensión es muy bajito y no podemos emplear estrategias como las anteriores. En primer lugar, lo más importante es la seguridad del niño, por eso hay arneses de diferentes tipos que impiden físicamente que el niño pueda salir corriendo. Este es un buen ejemplo:
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