AUTISMO Y VIOLENCIA

La gran mentira del autismo y la violencia: la mayoría de niños con TEA son víctimas, no agresores

Los profesionales desmienten que el síndrome de Asperger que se atribuye al agresor del IES Elena García Armada le hiciera violento.

La agresión en el IES Elena García Armada de Jerez de la Frontera ha conmocionado a España. Saúl, de 14 años, ha herido a cinco personas, dos compañeros y tres profesores, con cuchillos traídos de casa.

El adolescente, con síndrome de Asperger, no era conocido por ser conflictivo pero sí por pasar los recreos en soledad. Eso le hacía un blanco fácil: el día anterior le habían arrojado agua entre varios chicos para burlarse de él.

Es tristemente común que un niño con Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) sufra acoso, confirman tanto los especialistas como la literatura científica. La respuesta violenta, sin embargo, es la excepción, no la norma.

“No hay ninguna relación directa entre los comportamientos violentos y el TEA”, explica Jesús García Lorente, director general de la Confederación Autismo España.

El trastorno implica “desregulaciones” en el individuo a causa del estrés que les provoca la dificultad de manejarse en el entorno social, pero eso no les predispone a responder con conductas agresivas.

Al contrario: el 60% de los niños con autismo escolarizados pasan solos el recreo como Saúl, una tendencia a la marginación que se prolonga en la edad adulta en una tasa del 90% de paro. Y carecer de mecanismos interpersonales para manejarlo aumenta su victimización.16

“Los índices de acoso escolar son tristemente insoportables”, lamenta García Lorente. “Hablamos de más del 50% de los que tienen discapacidad intelectual asociada”.

El Asperger, el rango de autismo que no limita la capacidad cognitiva, también plantea una “discriminación desapercibida” debido al infradiagnóstico: hay 60.000 personas con TEA reconocidas en el sistema escolar en España, pero “por cifras de prevalencia, extrapolando uno cada 100 nacimientos, tendríamos en torno a 85.000 casos en edad escolar“. Y las “rarezas” o “manías” que convierten al niño en objeto de burla y desprecio serían en realidad problemas funcionales.

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