LAS CINCO DIFERENCIAS ENTRE AUTISMO Y ASPERGER Diferenciar el autismo del asperger es algo que se ha buscado desde hace muchos años y aunque en mi concepto el asperger y el autismo hacen parte de un mismo espectro, sí existen unas características que los diferencian.

En este vídeo hablaré de CINCO diferencias básicas no me basaré en cuadros comparativos, pero sí en los tópicos de evolución de los T.E.A.

Una de las primeras diferencias es en el DIAGNÓSTICO: En el autismo dadas sus señales tempranas como el lenguaje o la evitación de la mirada pueden llevar a un diagnóstico temprano alrededor de los 18 meses a los tres años. Por el contrario, en el Asperger puede ser diagnosticado mucho más tarde en la juventud o incluso en la edad adulta pues sus características no suelen ser tan evidentes y pueden enmascararse con condiciones como la depresión o un trastorno de ansiedad.

La segunda diferencia ocurre en la COMUNICACIÓN: El autismo presenta un retraso en la comunicación o incluso ausencia de lenguaje, presentan ecolalias y pueden hacer uso indebido de frases o palabras o incluso inventar palabras. En el asperger, aunque no hay un retraso evidente de la comunicación incluso pueden hablar antes de lo esperado, Sí existe una conversación centrada en intereses con un discurso bastante técnico y complejo. Tanto en el autismo como en el asperger la comprensión suele ser literal.

Una tercera diferencia se presenta en la parte SOCIAL: En el autismo existe una tendencia al aislamiento, pero aclaro no porque deseen estar solos sino para evitar situaciones que salen de su comprensión o que sensorial-mente no pueden tolerar. En el asperger sucede algo similar no obstante la capacidad de adaptación e imitación de un asperger es mucho mayor lo que puede facilitar su interacción social. La persona con autismo necesitará mediadores que le ayuden en ese proceso sin embargo en ambos casos necesitan y desear tener amigos y encajar en un grupo.

La cuarta diferencia la encontraremos en el área de INTERESES RESTRINGIDOS: Una persona con autismo presenta intereses restringidos más como un control del entorno y como una forma de sobrellevar la ansiedad tales como alinear objetos o repetir un ritual. Para las personas con asperger sus obsesiones son más del tipo intelectual y memorístico como datos históricos, fechas o información sobre un tema determinado.

LA PARTE COGNITIVA Y DE APRENDIZAJE sería la quinta diferencia. Aquí radica una de las principales diferencias debido a que si bien en el autismo se presentan profundas dificultades de aprendizaje derivadas de las características del autismo. Por el contrario, en el asperger no se suele presentar dificultades de aprendizaje debido a su capacidad de memoria y a su perfil para llevar a cabo las actividades que se le asignan.

Sí existe algún problema en la escuela o en la universidad será más por el entorno social que por su capacidad de aprendizaje. Por eso ver la capacidad cognitiva en términos de sí el coeficiente del autismo es inferior y el del asperger superior es un mito más dentro de los cuadros comparativos.

Finalmente, lo importante no es comparar o decir sí uno es inferior al otro, sino ver personas con capacidades y formas de ver el mundo de manera distinta. El asperger se convierte en un traductor del autismo y este a su vez una condición que nos obliga a cambiar lo establecido.


Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, DIVULGACIÓN. Guarda el enlace permanente.


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