¿Qué es el autismo de alto funcionamiento?

Ni el DSM, ni el CIE-10, la 10ª versión de la Clasificación Internacional de las Enfermedades, de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (la 11ª está por ver la luz en estos días) lo reconocen como condición, ni tampoco se trata de una categoría diagnóstica que los especialistas utilicen, sino que es un término que se ha acuñado informalmente para designar a aquellas personas que portan las características principales del Autismo, aunque atenuadas.

Esto es: dichas personas continúan con los problemas de interrelación social, de comunicación, de interpretación de las señales no verbales y toda la gama tan conocida de síntomas que distinguen a los trastornos autistas, pero atenuados.

Y también se señala otro aspecto, que es que su inteligencia se ubica usualmente en niveles similares a los de la población típica, mientras que algunos individuos superan la media, sobre todo en aquellos temas o materias que logran captar su atención, en los cuales se muestran brillantes.

Se ha discutido si el tema de la inteligencia en el Autismo es una nota distintiva o no, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta que los tests que se utilizan usualmente para medirla (más allá de las críticas que se hacen a ellos en sí mismos) suelen implicar un alto grado de estrés para los autistas que se someten a ellos, por lo que se postula que los resultados no serían confiables.

Es por ello que estos rotulados como de alto funcionamiento continúan con los problemas para establecer contacto visual, comunicarse con los demás, captar las señales gestuales y las formas retóricas del habla, les cuesta hacer y mantener amigos y relaciones amorosas, usan muy poco de lo que se conoce como charla social, son devotos de la rutina y del orden, pueden ser reticentes o extremadamente confiados ante extraños, faltos de reglas sociales y todo el bagaje sintomático conocido.

Respecto de su rendimiento escolar y laboral, este abarca un amplio rango, dado que pueden ser extraordinariamente competentes (sobre todo en aquello que logra captar su atención) o fallar en su capacidad de concentración y de respuesta ante situaciones que les resulten desbordantes.

Un dato interesante es que mientras que en el Autismo a secas la proporción de varones supera a la de las mujeres en una proporción aproximada de 4,3 a 1, en el de alto funcionamiento es aun mayor, trepando a 5,5 a 1.

Insistimos en que, pese a que resultan mucho más comunicativos que el resto de sus pares, de todas maneras continúan advirtiéndose deficiencias, que, según las personas y las circunstancias en las que se desenvuelven, son de distinta intensidad.

fuente: https://elcisne.org/que-es-el-autismo-de-alto-funcionamiento/

Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, DEFINICIONES. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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