ANSIEDAD EN EL AUTISMO

FACTORES QUE LA DESENCADENAN

Autismo y ansiedad son dos palabras que a menudo se relacionan, debido a que muchas personas con autismo la sufren, en mayor o menor medida. La ansiedad emerge en muchas situaciones distintas, desde tener que esperar en una cola hasta la frustración de no poder hacerse entender.

Un estudio sobre ansiedad y TEA encontraba que un 39,6% de los individuos con autismo tenían al menos un trastorno de ansiedad. Los tres tipos más comunes de estos trastornos son la Fobia específica (29,8%), Trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo (17,4%) y el Trastorno de ansiedad social (16,6%).

DESENCADENANTES

Momentos sin horario/propósito fijo

  • Esperar el autobús para ir al colegio
  • Antes y después de entrar al colegio
  • El momento de ir de un espacio a otro (entre clase y clase)
  • Almuerzo/patio
  • Educación física

En el aula

  • Entender qué hacer y cómo
  • Presentaciones delante de los demás
  • Responder en voz alta
  • Exámenes
  • Notas

Problemas sensoriales

  • Espacios llenos de gente (supermercados, patio de la escuela, conciertos…)
  • Espacio (demasiado grande, demasiado pequeño, con olor demasiado fuerte, con demasiada luz, demasiado ruidoso…)
  •  Olores (perfumes, productos de limpieza, pintura…)
  • Comida (textura, olor, color, sonido al morder)
  • Cortar el pelo
  • Médico o dentista
  • Lavar los dientes

Situaciones sociales

  • Sitios nuevos
  • Cambio de planes
  • Ajustar intereses personales con el resto
  • Reuniones familiares
  • Niños pequeños impredecibles
  • Iniciar una conversación
  • Separarse de la madre / padre para ir al colegio

Otros

  • Dificultad en hacerse entender
  • Acudir a citas
  • Pedir citas
  • Llamar por teléfono

REDUCIR ANSIEDAD

Hay diferentes formas de evitar o reducir la ansiedad. Sin entrar en el tema de los fármacos, la respuesta debe ser ayudarle a afrontar estas situaciones. ¿De qué forma?

  • No castigar o reñir al niñ@ si debido a la ansiedad responde con estereotipias (esto les ayuda a calmarse)
  • Tratar de identificar qué es lo que le produce ansiedad, cualquiera (u otros) de los puntos anteriores puede ser un desencadenante
  • Para identificarlo, observa que cosas estabais haciendo antes de que se produjera el ataque de ansiedad
  • Una vez identificado (identificarlo puede ser evidente o costar tiempo), debemos ayudarle a superar esa ansiedad . ¿Cómo?
  • Una forma que funciona bastante bien es la terapia congnitivo-conductual. Este tipo de terapia enseña a afrontar los miedos de manera progresiva.

Ejemplo: Si el niño tiene pánico ante la supuesta separación con su madre, el terapeuta puede pedirle que esté en una habitación separado de su madre durante un minuto. Cuando su madre vuelve, el niño reafirma que no ha pasado nada, que estaba bien. El terapeuta entonces va aumentando el tiempo de separación de la madre lo que va reforzando al niño a tranquilizarse, a ir apagando su ansiedad y a sentirse protegido y seguro.

  • Fomenta y recompénsale por su esfuerzo y compromiso en comportamientos valientes
  • Transmítele confianza en su capacidad para controlar su preocupación y la ansiedad

fuente: https://blog.cerqana.com/ansiedad-autismo/

Esta entrada fue publicada en AUTISMO, DIVULGACIÓN. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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