CLAVES PARA EL CUIDADO Y TRATAMIENTO DE UN AUTISTA DESDE EL PUNTO DE VISTA PSICOLOGICO

Entrevista a Mercedes Belinchón por Infocop

M.B.: Tal y como ha recogido el Grupo de Estudio de los TEA en la Guía de Buena Práctica en el Tratamiento de los TEA (Fuentes-Biggi y cols., 2006), existe un amplio consenso internacional en torno a varias ideas: 1) que la educación y el apoyo social son los principales medios para el tratamiento de todas las personas con TEA, durante toda la vida de éstas (por tanto, también durante la edad adulta); 2) que la intervención educativa se debe orientar al desarrollo de las competencias sociales, comunicativas, adaptativas y de juego y a la reducción, en la medida de lo posible, de los síntomas y conductas desadaptativos; 3) que la intervención educativa debe ser iniciada lo más tempranamente posible (idealmente, antes de los 3 años), debe ser lo más estructurada e intensiva posible (al menos 25 horas semanales), debe ser lo más extensiva posible (incluyendo todos los contextos en que se desenvuelve la persona –familia, centro educativo o laboral, comunidad), y debe contar con la máxima colaboración posible de los padres y familiares más próximos; 4) que la intervención educativa se debe complementar, en una mayoría de los casos, con tratamientos farmacológicos y programas conductuales o cognitivo-conductuales para el control de ciertos síntomas y problemas asociados específicos, y, en todos los casos, con estrategias de intervención orientadas a facilitar la inclusión social y normalización de las personas con TEA; 5) que la programación de la intervención debe ser individualizada, habida cuenta del diferente perfil de capacidades, dificultades y necesidades de cada persona con TEA; 6) que la elección de los objetivos y métodos de la intervención deben basarse en la evidencia científica actualmente disponible sobre la efectividad de los tratamientos, evitando programas (como las «lentes de Irlen», la terapia psicodinámica, el tratamiento con quelantes o con secretina, la terapia sacrocraneal, el método Dolman-Delacato, y otros) cuya efectividad real en el tratamiento de las personas con TEA no está documentada, y 7) que la programación de la intervención debe estar «centrada en la persona» y debe tener como principio rector garantizar una buena «calidad de vida» (relaciones interpersonales significativas, bienestar físico y emocional, autodeterminación, inclusión social…) tanto de la persona con TEA como de sus familiares. uot;

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